Small Cell base stations (SCBS) are widely recognized as a solution to the insatiable demand for mobile data traffic which has been about doubling every year. Mobile traffic is expected to reach 10.8 exabytes per month in 2016 from 0.6 exabytes per month in 20111. The macro-cellular architecture where base station antennas are mounted on building rooftops has served the purpose of providing mobile voice service very well.

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This 60 page guide Understanding LTE, provides an essential reference for engineers wanting to gain a better understanding of LTE. The guide contains a comprehensive overview of LTE technology and the testing issues it presents to both the engineer and the network operator. Contents cover LTE/SAE introduction, LTE Physical Layer Structure, Self Optimising Networks, Impact on users of the technology, Testing challenges and MIMO Testing plus much more.

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Networks are increasing in their complexity, both in terms of cascaded filtering (e.g., via ROADMs in mesh networks) and multiple-bit/symbol modulation formats. For instance, intra-channel noise will increasingly be spectrally carved by filters, the signal bandwidths will frequently be as large as the effective channels widths, and different data rates will be used more and more on a given network. All these factors will affect wavelengths differently, as some wavelengths might have passed through a different number of ROADMs, data rates in a single fiber might vary from one wavelength to the next, etc. Nevertheless, OSNR remains a critical network performance parameter, which requires OSNR measurements optimized on a per-channel basis, like the WDM-aware technique. Purely polarization-based OSNR measurement techniques (e.g., polarization nulling) can perform well when networks and noise sources remain simple, but as demonstrated herein, the robustness and performance of WDM-aware measurement renders it well suited for advanced network architectures and modulation formats.

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A comprehensive guide to network and service performance testing—which is comprised of six informative modules, specifically designed to assist you with Carrier Ethernet service testing.

Chap. 1: Carrier Ethernet Basics - an in-depth look at Carrier Ethernet, presents the network services and applications, and provides an overview of the key Carrier-Ethernet technologies.

Chap. 2: Carrier Ethernet Testing Technologies and Methodologies - the different testing standards including the new ITU-T Y.1564, as well as the key elements of service lifecycle management and Synchronization.

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To meet exploding bandwidth demand, mobile operators are upgrading backhaul networks to packet-based technology. This transition brings a major challenge: maintaining synchronization, a mandatory requirement for mobile network stability and handset handoff. As Ethernet is an asynchronous technology, newer methods and standards have been introduced to implement synchronization over Ethernet. Namely, IEEE 1588v2 PTP is becoming the choice solution for synchronization distribution, as it uses an exchange of timestamp between master and slave devices, thus providing frequency, phase and time sync over the existing Ethernet infrastructure.

This paper proposes a deployment strategy for operators and carriers interested in PTP. More specifically, it presents the five deployment phases that lead to a fully functional and stable PTP-based synchronization network: network survey for real-world metric measurement; benchmarking of various solutions to identify the best one; configuration and turn-up of PTP pipes; synchronization performance monitoring; and troubleshooting of PTP and synchronization-related events.

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As the expectations of mobile subscribers continue to rise, swift resolution of network issues is critical. To reduce customer churn, network operators must be able to quickly identify the source of network issues. To minimize OpEx, the results of network analysis must be available in real time. In light of this challenge, EXFO’s experts have produced the highly valuable white paper, How to Get a Detailed View of Your Subscribers’ QoE in Real Time, which investigates the options available for determining subscriber Quality of Experience—in the era of increasingly complex and evolving networks

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